Ambient outdoor air quality and health Air pollution is a major environmental risk to health.
By reducing air pollution levels, countries can reduce the burden of disease from stroke, heart disease, lung cancer, and both chronic and acute respiratory diseases, including asthma. The lower the levels oakley sunglasses deals of air pollution, the better the cardiovascular and respiratory health of the population will be, both long and short term. Some 88% of those premature deaths occurred in low and middle income countries, and the greatest number in the WHO Western Pacific and South East oakley gloves Asia regions. Reducing outdoor air pollution also reduces emissions of CO2 and short lived climate pollutants such as black carbon particles and methane, thus contributing to the near and long term mitigation of climate change. In addition to outdoor air pollution, indoor smoke is a serious health risk for some 3 billion people who cook and heat their homes with biomass fuels and coal. WHO estimates that in 2012, some 72% of outdoor air pollution related premature deaths were due to ischaemic heart disease and strokes, while 14% of deaths were due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or acute lower respiratory infections, and 14% of deaths were due to lung cancer. Some deaths may be attributed to more than one risk factor at the same time. For example, both smoking and ambient air pollution affect lung cancer. Some lung cancer deaths could have been averted by improving ambient air quality, or by reducing tobacco smoking. A 2013 assessment by WHO's International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) concluded that outdoor air pollution is carcinogenic to humans, black friday oakley sunglasses with the particulate matter component of air pollution most closely associated with increased cancer incidence, especially cancer of the lung. An association also has been observed between outdoor air pollution and increase in cancer of the urinary tract/bladder. Ambient (outdoor air pollution) in both cities and rural areas was estimated to cause 3 million premature deaths worldwide per year in 2012; this mortality is due to exposure to small particulate matter of 10 microns or less in diameter (PM10), which cause cardiovascular and respiratory disease, and cancers. People living in low and middle income countries disproportionately experience the burden of outdoor air pollution with 87% (of the 3 million premature deaths) occurring in low and middle income countries, and the greatest burden in the WHO Western Pacific and South East Asia regions. The latest burden estimates reflect the very significant role air pollution plays in cardiovascular illness and premature deaths much more so than was previously understood by scientists. Most sources of outdoor air pollution are well beyond the control of individuals and demand action by cities, as well as national and international policymakers in sector like transport, energy waste management, buildings and agriculture. mini grids and rooftop solar power generation); for municipal and agricultural waste management: strategies for waste reduction, waste separation, recycling and reuse or waste reprocessing; as well as improved methods of biological waste management such as anaerobic waste digestion to produce biogas, are feasible, low cost alternatives to the open incineration of solid waste. Where incineration is unavoidable, then combustion technologies with strict emission controls are critical. In addition to outdoor air pollution, oakley gold frame sunglasses indoor smoke is a serious health risk for some 3 billion people who cook and heat their homes with biomass fuels and coal. Some 4.3 million premature deaths were attributable to household air pollution in 2012. Almost all of that burden was in low middle income countries as well.
The 2005 "WHO Air quality guidelines" offer global guidance on thresholds and limits for key air pollutants that pose health risks. The Guidelines indicate that by reducing particulate matter (PM10) pollution from 70 to 20 micrograms per cubic metre (g/m), we can cut air pollution related deaths by around 15%. The Guidelines apply worldwide and are based on expert evaluation of current scientific evidence for:.
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