Assessment of Suboptimal Effort Using the CVLT The present study sought to generate an embedded oakley sunglasses blue and white effort index within the CVLT II yes/no recognition trial using a known groups design.
oakley glasses price (1999) criteria for malingered neurocognitive dysfunction (MND). Separate multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. The full model based on the 4 foils correctly classified 88.5% of cases (61.3% sensitivity/98.8% specificity). The full model based on the composites correctly classified 81.4% of cases (45.2% sensitivity/95.1% specificity). With respect to univariate predictors, UN correctly classified 51.6 64.5% of MND cases and 90.2 100% of TBI cases depending on the diagnostic oakley juliet lenses cut off used. ETR also showed good classification accuracy (25.8 51.6% sensitivity/90.2 100% specificity). Three different ?? ? ??? ratios were generated from the original analyses UN/PR, UN/(PR+BN+BS), and ETR/DTR. All three ratios yielded good to excellent diagnostic accuracy (87% sensitivity/98.4% specificity, 70.4% sensitivity/97% specificity, and 38.5% sensitivity/95.5% specificity, respectively). In addition, UN, ETR, and the multivariate equations were cross validated with a group of 19 patients with complicated mild TBI supplying adequate effort (MTBI) and a group of 23 patients with complicated mild TBI performing poorly on effort measures (SE), resulting in high specificity values depending on the cut offs used. Finally, previous research using the CVLT and CVLT II (Coleman et al., 1998; Curtis et al., 2006; Millis et al., 1995; Millis et al., 2007; Sweet et al., 2000) was replicated.
Overall, UN, ETR, both multivariate equations, and all three ratios derived from the foils of the CVLT II yes/no recognition trial show considerable merit as embedded effort indices. Predictive power values are provided for all predictors at various diagnostic cut offs across 5 hypothetical base rates to facilitate generalization of findings to different settings. Clinical and forensic implications are discussed with a focus on differential diagnoses.
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